Sauber launched their C33 on Sunday with the new car featuring a much gentler slope in the nose than many of its rivals.
Similar to the McLaren that was launched earlier in the week, the 2014 Sauber features a sharp nose where others have opted for flat or even two-pronged.
The new car's front wing is also notable smaller due to change in the rules while the team have adopted a twin pylon mounting for the rear.
Explaining the new look, Sauber's chief designer Eric Gandelin said: "The regulation changes in 2014 are the biggest ever seen in Formula One. They impact on all aspects of the car's design," he said.
"The most noticeable change on the chassis and safety side concerns the nose structure where a maximum height for the tip of the nose is now set by the rules. This is to reduce the likelihood of cars launching in the air in case of a front to rear impact. This also reduces the risk of a driver sustaining head injuries, which could happen with the previous higher nose design.
"These changes are combined with a new side impact structure as well, for which the design is now regulated. This means the dimension of the tube and the laminate is now set and the same for all teams. And these tubes are overall much bigger and result in bulkier side pods, especially compared to the very slim side pods, we had on the C32."
The length of the chassis is also different to last year due to the new rules governing the engine size, a 1.6-litre turbocharged V6, and the new energy recovery system.
"On the engine side the old 2.4 liter naturally aspirated V8 is being replaced by a 1.6 liter turbocharged V6 engine. This is coupled to a much more complex energy recovery system with bigger batteries and now two electric motors," he added. "Energy is being recovered from both, braking and heat.
"The power generated by the energy recovery system will increase from 60 kilowatts in the past few years to 120 kilowatts with the boost available for 33 seconds. The fuel consumption is being reduced significantly.
But the Team Principal is careful to make any forecasts for the new season: “Due to the radical changes in the technical regulations, predictions are simply impossible to make at this stage. Even more so than in previous years, any impression of how the teams stand against each other will only emerge once winter testing has been completed. That is also when we will announce our goals for the 2014 season. One thing’s for sure: reliability will be of the essence, especially at the beginning of the season."
Kaltenborn is optimistic about the new brace of drivers: “Adrian is somebody we’ve been observing for some time and with whom we’ve been in contact since September. That is why I’m particularly delighted we’ve managed to get him on board. He has repeatedly demonstrated just how fast he is, and he isn’t lacking in experience either, being about to enter his seventh season. In the light of the far-reaching technical changes, that is an advantage not to be underestimated."
“As for Esteban Gutierrez," the Team Principal continued, “we have long considered him to be a talented racing driver. We know him extremely well as his connections with our team go back several years. Last year he had a difficult start, but managed to steadily progress. He has also settled into the team very well. We are confident he can now turn his experience into good results."
Adrian Sutil is delighted with his move to the Sauber F1 Team: “After six good years in the same team, it was time for me to look for a new challenge. I’m determined to have a successful future with the Sauber F1 Team and will do my bit to ensure that. In recent years the team has repeatedly demonstrated its potential, not least in the second half of the last season. And as for infrastructure, the Sauber F1 Team are a match for anybody. I can’t wait to take on the challenge!"
“Last season I had a steep learning curve," said Esteban Gutiérrez, “but working together with the team, I was able to make steady progress. This is my fourth year with the Swiss team, and the second as a racing driver. Last year I learnt a great deal and I feel ready for the next step. The 2014 season will be a huge challenge on the technical front, which makes it all the more important to know the people you work with well. I will do everything I can to improve further and to support the team with all the resources I have."
On January 21st, the team announced Giedo van der Garde as its test and reserve driver. Team Principal Monisha Kaltenborn said: “Giedo has four years of experience in GP2 and he drove one year in Formula One. These are good credentials to work successfully with our team. Many times Giedo has shown his talent as a race driver. At the same time the team would like to support him to further develop his skills. Giedo has the right attitude to take the next step forward."
Taking on the role of test driver is 18-year-old Sergey Sirotkin of Russia. “Last year Sergey already had a chance to glean a first-hand impression of Formula One," said Monisha Kaltenborn. “He spent several days in the factory, spoke at length with our engineers, was with the team at the Italian Grand Prix and drove 60 laps in a Ferrari in Fiorano. Our aim, as before, is to prepare him for entry into Formula One."
The Sauber C33-Ferrari
The changes to the regulations introduced for 2014 are arguably the most sweeping ever seen in Formula One. As far as the engine in particular is concerned, the changes require a completely new concept. In place of last season’s naturally aspirated 2.4-litre V8 engine comes a 1.6-litre turbocharged V6 power unit, backed up by an energy recovery system (ERS) which is twice as powerful as in the past and with, potentially, more than ten times the deployable energy.
But that’s not all; key changes have also been introduced on the aerodynamics. For example, the maximum width of the front wing is now 165 cm (previously 180 cm) and the nose will be very low. This is intended to improve safety. Lower noses have been introduced by agreement between the FIA and the teams to reduce the risk that a car will be launched into the air in the case of a nose to rear wheel accident and also to reduce the risk of a driver injury in the event of a “T bone" accident.
Modifications have also been made to the dimensions of the chassis profile at the front of the car and the side crash elements, which are now standardized. The side impact test has been replaced by push off and load tests which are more stringent than before. These structures, combined with the way they are attached to the chassis, should result in better safety in the case of an oblique side impact. In addition, the lower rear wing is now removed. The aerodynamic effects, which could previously be achieved at the rear of the car through the manipulation of exhaust gases, are now restricted, with the position of the exhaust now more precisely defined. Side exhaust exits are no longer permitted; the exhaust tailpipe will now exit centrally and rearwards, with only minor changes allowed to its angle.
All of these measures reduce downforce and, therefore, decrease cornering speed. The cars will also be slower due to the raising of the minimum weight, which increases from 642 kg (including driver) to 691 kg, cancelling out – at least in part – the weight added by the new technical systems.
As Eric Gandelin, Sauber F1 Team Chief Designer, explained: “Together, these changes present the engineers with a huge challenge, especially with time pressure also a major factor. We’ve had to make various decisions on the chassis before all the necessary data and information was available to us. That is understandable, given that engine development continues alongside that of the rest of the car up to the last possible moment. And ultimately, of course, that is in our interests as well."
The engineers, therefore, followed the path offering the greatest possible flexibility, which allows them to respond to unexpected factors or developments.
Perhaps the most visually striking element of the Sauber C33-Ferrari is the very low, snout-like nose. The front wing pylon’s attachments on the nose have been moved out as far as possible allowed by the regulations to channel as much air as possible under the car.
The aerodynamics engineers were handed a new brief for the design of the front wing, which is 7.5 centimeters narrower on either side than the previous version. This creates very different airflow conditions. The entire front wing with its complex end plates, has, therefore, been newly developed from the ground up.
The front suspension concept has changed little, with its springs and dampers again pushrod-actuated. However, the changes to the regulations regarding the chassis profile have called for some detail adjustments.
The side crash elements have had a significant influence on the form of the side pods which is clearly visible in the design of the car. The cooling air intakes are slightly larger than those of last year’s car because the cooling requirements of the power unit and ancillaries have increased considerably. For the same reason, the vertically mounted radiators are now significantly larger. Again, the engineers have built a degree of flexibility into their design to allow scope to react should requirements shift in one or other direction.
The car’s engine, energy recovery system and gearbox are supplied by Ferrari. The 1.6-litre turbocharged V6 engine has a rev limit of 15,000 rpm. A maximum 100 kg of fuel can be used for each race. Previously there was no limit on fuel usage and up to 140 kg of fuel was used, so this represents a significant improvement in fuel efficiency. Continuing the environmental theme, this year the number of engines which can be used in a season is also reduced from eight to five.
Where previously a maximum KERS boost of 60 kW was available for 6.6 seconds, now the drivers will be able to call on an extra 120 kW of power for 33 seconds per lap from the batteries. This additional output is fuelled not only by the kinetic energy generated under braking, but also by the heat energy produced by the engine. The system now comprises two electric motors/generators, one coupled to the V6 engine’s drive unit, the other connected to the turbocharger. It is also possible to drive the electric motor attached to the engine directly from the one driven by the turbocharger, which can extend the total usable electrical energy further. The turbocharger can also be driven electronically to limit delays in the creation of engine power on first application of throttle.
The all-new carbon gearbox has eight forward gears (as stipulated in the regulations), whose ratios may only be changed once over the course of the 2014 season.
The whole power unit may not weigh less than 145 kg.
The concept for the rear of the Sauber C33-Ferrari also includes a degree of adaptability, so that the engineers can make adjustments to this area of the car in response to varying conditions. The exhaust tailpipe is positioned centrally between two pylons, which connect the rear wing to the rear impact structure. A change in the regulations has enlarged the maximum permitted aperture between the flap and the main wing to 65 mm (during DRS activation – previously 50 mm), which increases the DRS effect of the rear wing.
The concept of the rear suspension remains unchanged. As previously, it is pull-rod-actuated.
The weight of the car presents the engineers with a major challenge, as the 49 kg higher minimum weight only partly cancels out the weight added predominantly by the power unit and its ancillaries. But not only the weight itself is a challenge, also the weight distribution is crucial when it comes to making optimum use of the tires.
Another tricky task for the engineers has been the packaging of the car’s components. The complexity of the power unit has resulted in a threefold increase in the number of electronics boxes alone compared to the Sauber C32-Ferrari. This means they had to find a way to accommodate over 40 such components, more than 30 of which require cooling. It has become clear that thermal management is a key factor this season.
The braking system concept is totally new, taking the form of a brake-by-wire system for the first time at the rear wheels. This has become necessary due to the significantly increased performance of the ERS, which requires much greater variations in rear wheel braking torque than previously. With brake-by-wire, an electronic system measures how hard the driver presses the brake pedal and then – using the additional information from energy recuperation – determines in a split-second the amount of braking pressure that should be fed through to the rear brake calipers.
“The radical changes to the technical regulations for 2014 mean that it’s even harder than usual to make predictions for the new season," explained Chief Designer Eric Gandelin. “We know what kind of package we’ve put together here, but it is difficult to foresee what shape our rivals are in. The earliest opportunity to gain an impression of where the teams are in relation to one another will come during testing. The path we have followed with the design of the Sauber C33-Ferrari allows us maximum flexibility, so that we can react quickly. It is also clear that reliability will be an important factor in the first few races in particular. So this is an area which we have given very high priority."
The Sauber F1 Team will begin the test in Jerez with a roll-out version of the Sauber C33-Ferrari. This means, that the car will be fully functional, but without a number of performance parts, which will be introduced for the two tests in Bahrain. Eric Gandelin explained: “On the one hand this gives us time to maximize the development of these performance relevant parts, and on the other hand we can run the car during the first test and check all the systems, which we feel is crucial, considering all the technical changes."
Monisha Kaltenborn, next Tuesday the first test begins in Jerez. What are your feelings going into the roll-out?
We'll be having our roll-out in Jerez. That is always a very special moment, because first of all we'll see if everything really fits together and if the car is running well.
It also tells us if we have been working in the right direction for the last nine months. All this makes it a very emotional moment.
With the regulation changes in 2014 and the short turnaround time over the winter, what are your aims for the forthcoming season?
Due to the big changes on the chassis side, but particularly on the drive train side, it is impossible to give any indication about our competitiveness.
We can do that at the earliest after the winter tests, particularly when we have seen where we stand compared to our competitors. As always, it's going to be our target to improve our position in the championship.
What do you expect from your drivers?
This year we have a very exciting driver line-up. On the one hand we have Adrian, a very experienced racing driver, and I'm happy that we finally had the opportunity to work together.
On the other hand we have Esteban, a young talented driver who we have known for many years, and has also been a member of the team. This is very valuable considering the big changes that are coming this season.
I hope the drivers can get to know the car very quickly and that we have all our reliability issues sorted out, so that together with the drivers we can work on the performance and develop the car further. ERS System:
Battery Energy (per lap): 4 Mj
MGU-K Power: 120kW
MGU-K max revs: 50,000rpm
MGU-H max revs: 125,000rpm