Senna, who made his debut in 2010 with Hispania, lost his drive at the end of the season and joined Renault as third driver.
He had been expected to replace Robert Kubica who was sidelined after a rally accident left him unable to drive. However, the team chose a more experienced Heidfeld in order to help develop the car.
Team principal Eric Boullier says the time is right to give Senna a chance to prove himself during a practice session in the R31.
"We feel now is the right time to give Bruno a chance to drive for us during a Free Practice session," said Boullier. "Although he’s done some mileage with our R29 and R31 already this year, driving in a Friday session will provide him invaluable experience with the R31 during a race weekend.
"It will also give us with a chance to see how Bruno adapts to driving during a competitive practice session. As of Free Practice 2, Nick will return to the car for the remainder of the weekend alongside Vitaly."
Senna added: "I'm really excited to be driving in FP1 at the Hungaroring. It's not very often you get these opportunities with big teams, and I'm very grateful for getting this chance.
"Hopefully I can do a good job and show the team the potential I have, and help us move forward. I’ve done some productive work in the R31 already this year – though never during a race weekend – so I know the car layout well and I’m confident it will be a smooth transition. I’m looking forward to working with the team during the session to ensure a good car set-up for Nick when he resumes driving in FP2."