So just how hard did Massa and Surtees get hit?

All the energies are calculated using the old kinetic energy = 1/2 * mass * velocity^2 formula.

– 100 mph fastball from Nolan Ryan: 145 joules
– Barry Bonds’ swing (33 oz. bat at 70 mph): 458 joules
– 9mm handgun: 513 joules
– .44 Magnum handgun: 1,510 joules
– The spring that hit Massa (800 grams at 160 mph): 2,046 joules
– AK-47 (7.62mm round): 2,599 joules
– 12 gauge shotgun slug: 3,580 joules
– The wheel that killed Henry Surtees (an estimated 12 kg at 120 mph): 17,267 joules

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